THE ANALYSIS OF SEMANTIC AND PRAGMATIC CONTEXT IN TOEFL TEST SIMULATION ON LISTENING SECTION

Rakha Setyawan, Triastama Wiraatmaja


Abstract


Sociolinguistics aspects such as Semantic and Pragmatic affect language user in every situation. Those two contexts even exist in a proficiency test to become the test foundation. This research was conducted to identify the semantic and pragmatic contexts in TOEFL test simulation on the Listening section. The researcher applied a qualitative descriptive approach to this research, and Document Analysis and the researcher as the instrument. The object of this research was TOP NO 1 TOEFL SIMULATION published by FORUM TENTOR INDONESIA. The result reveals that there are several types of semantic and pragmatic context found in the test simulation. The semantic contexts found in 8 questions from the 30 questions analyzed. The types of semantic contexts which were found namely; Meaning, Semantic Feature, and Semantic Roles. Moreover, the semantic type that mostly occurred is Semantic Roles (4 Questions), then followed by Semantic Feature (2 Questions) and Meaning (2 Questions). However, the Pragmatic context quantities are found more than the semantic context. From the 30 analyzed questions, the Pragmatic contexts found are 40 questions, it happens because one test item can have more than one type of pragmatic. Also, the Reference type in Pragmatic occurred in most questions because the narrator on the listening passage uses referencing (nature of Reference) to make the question. The type of pragmatic context found namely; Context, Politeness, Reference, and Speech Act. The type of pragmatic context which is mostly occurred is Reference (25 questions).


Keywords


Semantic, Pragmatic, TOEFL test, Listening

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allami, H. (2014). Pragmatic Knowledge Assessment in Listening Sections of IELTS Tests. Iran: Yazd University Ary, D. Jacobs, L. C., Sorensen, C., &Razavieh, A. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education Eighth Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth BARDOVI-HARLIG, K. (2011). Do Language Learners Recognize Pragmatic Violations Pragmatic Versus Grammatical Awareness in Instructed L2 Learning? Bowen, G. A. (2009) Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method. Qualitative Research Journal, Vol 9, No 2, 27-40. Cullowhee: Western Carolina University British Council IELTS – Home Retrieved from http://indonesia.ielts.britishcouncil.org/iorpsea/html/registration/selectExamTypeServlet.do?gclid=Cj0KCQjwr4beBRDNARIsAGZaZ5cKdZZi-Doc2SOroYNoikYeH41XV8CxbxcSH7F7LBn-Uj7HfoTDBscaApNqEALw_wcB Creswell J. W. (2012) Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research fourth edition. Boston: Pearson. Fraenkel, Jack. R., and Norman E. Wallen. 2012. How to Design and EvaluateResearch in Education 8th Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Garcia, P. (2004). Pragmatic Comprehension of High and Low Level Language Learners. Arizona: Northern Arizona University IELTS for Scholarship by British Council. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.britishcouncil.org/ IELTS test taker demography. (2017) Retrieved from https://www.ielts.org/teaching-and-research/test-statistics Jianda, L. (2006). Assessing EFL learners’ interlanguagepragmatic knowledge:Implications for testers and teachers. China: Guangdong University of Foreign Studies Jung, Y.J. (2002). Issues in Acquisitional Pragmatics. New York: Columbia University Karbalaei, A. &Rahmanzade, M. K. (2015). An Investigation into Pragmatic Knowledge in the Reading Section of TOLIMO, TOEFL, and IELTS Examinations. Tehran: Farhangian University Kasper, G., & Schmidt, R.G. (2008). Developmental Issues in Interlanguage Pragmatics. Katz, J. J. (1972). Semantic theory (Studies in language). USA: Harper & Row Katz, J. J & Fodor, J. A. (1963). The Structure of a Semantic Theory, Vol. 39, No. 2. (Apr. - Jun., 1963), pp. 170-210. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Latief, M. A. (2016) Research Methods on Language Learning an Introduction. Malang: UniversitasNegerei Malang (UM Press) Leech, G. N. (1983). The principles of pragmatics. New York: Longman. McNamara, T. (2000) Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press Sheppard, B. (2013). Teaching and Researching Listening (2nded.). USA: University of Oregon Soler, E.A &Martínez-Flor, A. (2008). Investigating Pragmatics in Foreign LanguageLearning, Teaching and Testing. UK: Cromwell Press Ltd Tan, P. (1994). Key concepts in ELT. ELT Journal, 48(1), 100 TOEFL test taker demography and Types of TOEFL test. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.ets.org/toefl Trudgill, P. (2000). Sociolinguistics: An introduction to language and society fourth edition. London: Penguin. Van Dijk, T. (1977). Text and Context. London: Longman Vitásková, K. &Šebková, L. (2017). The Variable Professional Perception in Assessment of PragmaticLanguage Level in Autism Spectrum Disorders and RelatedDevelopmental Difficulties. Czech Republic: Palacký University in Olomouc Yule, G. (2010). The study of language 4th edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22219/celtic.v5i2.7619 | Abstract views : 334 | PDF views : 334 |

Copyright (c) 2018 Rakha Setyawan, Triastama Wiraatmaja

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View Celtic's Stats

 

 

 Lisensi Creative Commons

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.