The correlation between science process skills and biology cognitive learning outcome of senior high school students

Silfia Ilma, Mimien Henie Irawati Al-Muhdhar, Fatchur Rohman, Murni Saptasari


Science Process Skills (SPS) are the essential abilities which need to be mastered in learning biology to strengthen students’ learning outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between SPS and biology Cognitive Learning Outcome (CLO) of senior high school students. The sample was 100 tenth graders in Malang. The correlational study used two test types as the instrument (i.e. essay and multiple choice). The essay instrument consisted of 10 items which were developed from SPS aspects (basic and integrated skills). Meanwhile, the biology CLO was measured using multiple choice test which consisted of 30 items. The collected data were analyzed using simple linear regression analysis. The results showed that the highest students’ SPS aspect was observing (78.84%), while the lowest was predicting aspect (27.30%). In addition, the highest achievement of students’ biology CLO was C1 (94.23%), while the lowest was C6 (33.46%). The regression analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between students’ SPS and biology CLO, where the equation was Y = 27.988 + 0.311X.  Therefore, it is crucial to consider SPS to be integrated into a learning activity by using various learning models that empowering these skills to improve students’ biology CLO.


cognitive learning outcome; biology learning outcome; science process skills

Full Text:



Abungu, H. E., Okere, M. I. O., & Wachanga, S. W. (2014). The effect of science process skills teaching approach on secondary school students’ achievement in chemistry in Nyando District, Kenya. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 4(6), 359–372. doi:

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing : A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Longman. Retrieved from

Andi, H. J., & Umamah, C. (2018). Pengaruh model pembelajaran kooperatif group investigation dengan scaffolding terhadap pemahaman konsep fisika siswa SMA. Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran Fisika, 9(2), 92–97. doi:

Armi, A., & Noviyanti, A. (2014). Pemahaman konsep siswa pada materi plantae. Jurnal Serambi Akademica, 2(1), 23–29. doi:

Asrizal, Amran, A., Ananda, A., Festiyed, F., & Sumarmin, R. (2018). The development of integrated science instructional materials to improve students’ digital literacy in scientific approach. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(4), 442–450. doi:

Çakir, N. K., & Sarikaya, M. (2010). An evaluation of science process skills of the science teaching majors. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 9, pp. 1592–1596). doi:

Candrasekaran, S. (2014). Developing scientific attitude, critical thinking and creative intelligence of higher secondary school biology students by applying synectics techniques. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 3(6), 1–8. Retrieved from

Cigrik, E., & Ozkan, M. (2015). The investigation of the effect of visiting science center on scientific process skills. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 1312–1316. doi:

Çimer, A. (2012). What makes biology learning difficult and effective: Students’ views. Educational Research and Reviews, 7(3), 61–71. doi:

Corrigan, K. (2012). Collaborative thinking: The challenge of the modern university. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 11(3), 262–272. doi:

Ekawati, N. W., Iswari, R. S., & Lisdiana. (2018). The influence of scientific independence towards students’ content analysis and science process skills on cell metabolism topic. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(4), 420–427. doi:

Elmas, R., Bodner, G. M., Aydogdu, B., & Saban, Y. (2018). The inclusion of science process skills in multiple choice questions: Are we getting any better? European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 6(1), 13–23. Retrieved from

Fajriyanti, Z. D., Ernawati, T., & Sujatmika, S. (2018). Pengembangan LKS berbasis project based learning untuk meningkatkan keterampilan proses sains siswa SMP. JIPVA (Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Veteran), 2(2), 149–161. doi:

Gillies, R. M., & Nichols, K. (2015). How to support primary teachers’ implementation of inquiry: Teachers’ reflections on teaching cooperative inquiry-based science. Research in Science Education, 45, 171–191. doi:

Güler, B., & Şahin, M. (2019). Using inquiry-based experiments to improve pre-service science teachers’ science process skills. International Journal of Progressive Education, 15(5), 1–18. doi:

Gultepe, N. (2016). High school science teachers’ views on science process skills. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 11(5), 779–800. doi:

Handayani, G., Adisyahputra, A., & Indrayanti, R. (2018). Correlation between integrated science process skills, and ability to read comprehension to scientific literacy in biology teachers students. Biosfer: Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi, 11(1), 22–32. doi:

Haviz, M., Karomah, H., Delfita, R., Umar, M. I. A., & Maris, I. M. (2018). Revisiting generic science skills as 21st century skills on biology learning. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(3), 355–363. doi:

Hayati, D. P., Bintari, S. H., & Sukaesih, S. (2018). Implementation of the practicum methods with guided-discovery model to the student skill of science process. Journal of Biology Education, 7(1), 118–126. doi:

Hernawati, D., Amin, M., Irawati, M. H., Indriwati, S. E., & Omar, N. (2018). The effectiveness of scientific approach using encyclopedia as learning materials in improving students’ science process skills in science. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(3), 266–272. doi:

Hodosyová, M., Útla, J., Vnuková, P., & Lapitková, V. (2015). The development of science process skills in physics education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 982–989. doi:

Irwanto, Rohaeti, E., Widjajanti, E., & Suyanta. (2017). Students’ science process skill and analytical thinking ability in chemistry learning. In AIP Conference Proceedings 1868, (Vol. 1868, pp. 1–4). American Institute of Physics Articles. doi:

Johanis, L. (2015). Penerapan strategi guided inquiry untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa Ambon konsep sistem pernapasan manusia Kelas XI SMA Negeri 12 Ambon. Biopendix : Jurnal Biologi, Pendidikan Dan Terapan, 1(2), 179–187. Retrieved from

Kagee, A., Allie, S., & Lesch, A. (2010). Effect of a course in research methods on scientific thinking among psychology students. South African Journal of Psychology, 40(3), 272–281. doi:

Karamustafaoğlu, S. (2011). Improving the science process skills ability of science student teachers using I diagrams. Eurasian Journal of Physics and Chemistry Education, 3(1), 26–38. Retrieved from

Koerber, S., Mayer, D., Osterhaus, C., Schwippert, K., & Sodian, B. (2015). The development of scientific thinking in elementary school: A comprehensive inventory. Child Development, 86(1), 327–336. doi:

Koksal, E. A., & Berberoglu, G. (2014). The effect of guided-inquiry instruction on 6th grade Turkish students’ achievement, science process skills, and attitudes toward science. International Journal of Science Education, 36(1), 66–78. doi:

Kuhn, D. (2010). What is scientific thinking and how does it develop? (U. Goswami, Ed.) (2nd ed.). Retrieved from

Lati, W., Supasorn, S., & Promarak, V. (2012). Enhancement of learning achievement and integrated science process skills using science inquiry learning activities of chemical reaction rates. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 4471–4475. doi:

Lepiyanto, A. (2014). Analisis keterampilan proses sains pada pembelajran berbasis praktikum. Bioedukasi, 5(2), 156–161. Retrieved from

Lestari, P., Wardani, S., & Sumarti, S. S. (2018). Influence of guided inquiry model on students cognitive learning outcome in stoichiometry topic. Journal of Innovative Science Education, 7(2), 130–135. doi:

Mutlu, M., & Temiz, B. K. (2013). Science process skills of students having field dependent and field independent cognitive styles. Educational Research and Reviews, 8(11), 766–776. Retrieved from

Nirwana, F. B., Nyeneng, I. D. P., & Maharta, N. (2014). Pengaruh keterampilan proses sains terhadap hasil belajar pada model latihan inkuiri. Jurnal Pembelajaran Fisika, 2(3), 31–42. Retrieved from

Nugraha, M. G., Utari, S., Saepuzaman, D., Solihat, F. N., & Kirana, K. H. (2019). Development of basic physics experiments based on science process skills (SPS) to enhance mastery concepts of physics pre-service teachers in Melde’s law. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1280, 1–7. doi:

Osborne, J. (2013). The 21st century challenge for science education: Assessing scientific reasoning. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 10, 265–279. doi:

Prasasti, P. A. T., & Listiani, I. (2018). SETS-based guided experiment book: Empowering science process skills of elementary school students. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 4(3), 257–262. doi:

Pratono, A., Sumarti, S. S., & Wijayati, N. (2018). Contribution of assisted inquiry model of e-module to students science process skill. Journal of Innovative Science Education, 7(25), 62–68. Retrieved from

Rahmasiwi, A., Santosari, S., & Sari, D. P. (2015). Improving student’s science proces skill in biology through the inquiry learning model in grade XI MIA 9 (ICT) SMA Negeri 1 Karanganyar Academic Year 2014/2015. In Proceeding Biology Education Conference (pp. 428–433). Retrieved from

Ramdan, S., & Hamidah, I. (2015). Peningkatan keterampilan proses sains siswa smp melalui penerapan levels of inquiry dalam pembelajaran IPA Terpadu. EDUSAINS, 7(2), 105–113. doi:

Sagala, N. L., Rahmatsyah, & Simanjuntak, M. P. (2017). The influence of problem based learning model on scientific process skill and problem solving ability of student. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education, 7(4), 1–9. doi:

Sahyar, & Nst, F. H. (2017). The effect of scientific inquiry learning model based on conceptual change on physics cognitive competence and science process skill (SPS) of students at senior high school. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(5), 120–126. Retrieved from

Santiani, S. (2014). Korelasi hasil belajar kognitif dengan keterampilan proses sains mahasiswa fisika STAIN Palangka Raya pada matakuliah Fisika Dasar I Tahun Akademik 2013//2014. Edu Sains: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains dan Matematika, 2(1), 39–59. doi:

Shahali, E. H. M., Halim, L., Treagust, D. F., Won, M., & Chandrasegaran, A. L. (2017). Primary school teachers’ understanding of science process skills in relation to their teaching qualifications and teaching experience. Research in Science Education, 47, 257–281. doi:

Şimşek, P., & Kabapinar, F. (2010). The effects of inquiry-based learning on elementary students’ conceptual understanding of matter, scientific process skills and science attitudes. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 2, pp. 1190–1194). doi:

Sinatra, G. M., & Mason, L. (2013). Beyond Knowledge. In S. Vosniadou (Ed.), International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change (pp. 377–394). Abingdon: Routledge Handbooks Online. doi:

Sinuraya, J., Panggabean, D. D., & Wahyuni, I. (2019). Analisis hubungan keterampilan proses sains dan kreatifitas dengan hasil belajar kognitif melalui penggunaan LKM berorientasi ICARE pada pembelajaran matakuliah Fisika SMA. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika, 8(2), 91–96. Retrieved from

Siska, M., Kurnia, K., & Sunarya, Y. (2013). Peningkatan keterampilan proses sains siswa SMA melalui pembelajaran praktikum berbasis inkuiri pada materi laju reaksi. Jurnal Riset dan Praktik Pendidikan Kimia, 1(1), 69–75. Retrieved from KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS SISWA SMA MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN PRAKTIKUM BERBASIS INKUIRI PADA MATERI LAJU REAKSI

Siswono, H. (2017). Analisis pengaruh keterampilan proses sains terhadap penguasaan konsep fisika siswa. Momentum: Physics Education Journal, 1(2), 83–90. doi:

Solé-Llussà, A., Aguilar, D., & Ibáñez, M. (2019). Video worked examples to promote elementary students’ science process skills: a fruit decomposition inquiry activity. Journal of Biological Education. doi:

Stevens, C., & Witkow, M. R. (2014). Training scientific thinking skills: Evidence from an MCAT2015-aligned classroom module. Teaching of Psychology, 41(2), 115–121. doi:

Suciati, Ali, M. N., Imaningtyas, C. D., Anggraini, A. F., & Dermawan, Z. (2018). The profile of XI grade students’ scientific thinking abilities on scientific approach implementation. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(3), 341–346. doi:

Sukarno, Permanasari, A., & Hamidah, I. (2013). The profile of science process skill (SPS) student at secondary high school (Case study in Jambi). International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER), 1(1), 79–83. Retrieved from

Supriyatman, & Sukarno. (2014). Improving science process skills (SPS) science concepts mastery (SCM) prospective student teachers through inquiry learning instruction model by using interactive computer simulation. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 3(2), 6–9. Retrieved from

Suryaningsih, Y. (2017). Pembelajaran berbasis praktikum sebagai sarana siswa untuk berlatih menerapkan keterampilan proses sains dalam materi biologi. Jurnal Bio Education, 2(2), 49–57.Retrieved from

Syafriyansyah, Suyanto, E., & Nyeneng, I. D. P. (2013). Pengaruh keterampilan proses sains (KPS) terhadap hasil belajar fisika siswa melalui metode eksperimen dengan pendekatan inkuiri terbimbing. Jurnal Pembelajaran Fisika, 1(1), 433–443. Retrieved from

Tatar, E., & Oktay, M. (2011). The effectiveness of problem-based learning on teaching the first law of thermodynamics. Research in Science and Technological Education, 29(3), 315–332. doi:

Tendrita, M., Safilu, & Parakkasi. (2016). Peningkatan aktivitas belajar dan pemahaman konsep biologi dengan strategi Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review (SQ3R) pada siswa Kelas XI IPA SMA Negeri 5 Kendari. Jurnal Varidika, 28(2), 213–224. Retrieved from

Thitima, G., & Sumalee, C. (2012). Scientific thinking of the learners learning with the knowledge construction model enhancing scientific thinking. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 3771–3775. doi:

Turiman, P., Omar, J., Daud, A. M., & Osman, K. (2012). Fostering the 21st century skills through scientific literacy and science process skills. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 59, 110–116. doi:

Vebrianto, R., & Osman, K. (2011). The effect of multiple media instruction in improving students’ science process skill and achievement. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 15, pp. 346–350). doi:

Wahyuni, S., Indrawati, I., Sudarti, S., & Suana, W. (2017). Developing science process skills and problem-solving abilities based on outdoor learning in junior high school. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 6(1), 165–169. doi:

Wang, M., Wu, B., Kinshuk, Chen, N. S., & Spector, J. M. (2013). Connecting problem-solving and knowledge-construction processes in a visualization-based learning environment. Computers and Education, 68, 293–306. doi:

Wulandari, V. C. P., Masjhudi, & Balqis. (2014). Penerapan pembelajaran berbasis praktikum untuk meningkatkan keterampilan proses sains dan penguasaan konsep siswa Kelas XI IPA 1 di SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Malang, 1–8. Retrieved from

Zeyer, A. (2018). Gender, complexity, and science for all: Systemizing and its impact on motivation to learn science for different science subjects. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(2), 147–171. doi:

DOI: | Abstract views : 297 | PDF views : 297 |


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Ilma et al

License URL:

View JPBI Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.