Developing guided inquiry-based ecosystem module to improve students’ critical thinking skills

Irwan Irwan, Maridi Maridi, Sri Dwiastuti


The availability of modules that are able to develop critical students' thinking skills has not been fulfilled. This study aimed to develop and determine the characteristics, feasibility, and effectiveness of guided inquiry-based ecosystem modules to improve students' critical thinking skills. This R&D research referred to Borg and Gall model with nine stages. The research instrument used was a test question sheet adapted from Facione. The data gained were analyzed using ANCOVA. The results of the study showed that: 1) the developed module was characterized with guided inquiry-based syntax and critical thinking skills aspect; 2) the module was declared feasible based on the gained validity scores i.e. 92.19 (very decent) from material expert, 81.90 (very decent) from learning expert, 78.57 (worthy) from linguist, 92.86 (very decent) from learning media expert, 92.36 (very decent) from practitioners, and 91.80 (very decent) from limited field test; 3) the student critical thinking skills achievement which treated by using the module was significantly higher compared to another class (F = 120.52; p-value < 0.05). It can be concluded that the developed module was feasible to be used in learning and effectively improved students' critical thinking skills.


Critical thinking skills, guided inquiry, module

Full Text:



Abdi, A. (2012). A study on the relationship of thinking styles of students and their critical thinking skills. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 1719–1723. doi: 06.889

Adeyemi, S. B. (2012). Developing critical thinking skills in students: A mandate for higher education in Nigeria. European Journal of Educational Research, 1(2), 155–161. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed. gov/fulltext/EJ1086348.pdf

Aizikovitsh-Udi, E., & Cheng, D. (2015). Developing critical thinking skills from dispositions to abilities: Mathematics education from early childhood to high school. Creative Education, 6(4), 455–462. doi:

Aliakbari, M., & Sadeghdaghighi, A. (2013). Teachers’ perception of the barriers to critical thinking. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1–5. doi:

Arslan, S. (2015). Investigating predictive role of critical thinking on metacognition with structural equation modeling. The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Science, 3(2), 1–10. Retrieved from

Bahmani, S. (2016). Improved critical thinking in students using current events journaling. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 36(3/4), 190–202. doi:

Bensley, D. A., & Spero, R. A. (2014). Improving critical thinking skills and metacognitive monitoring through direct infusion. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 12, 55–68. doi:

de Bie, H., Wilhelm, P., & van der Meij, H. (2015). The Halpern critical thinking ssessment: Toward a Dutch appraisal of critical thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 17, 33–44. doi: 2015.04.001

Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., & Stewart, I. (2014). An integrated critical thinking framework for the 21st century. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 12, 43–52. doi:

Elisanti, E., Sajidan, S., & Prayitno, B. A. (2018). The effectiveness of inquiry lesson-based immunity system module to empower the students’ critical thinking skill. EDUSAINS, 10(1), 97–112. doi: 10.15408/es.v10i1.7259

Facione, P. A. (1992). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Insight assessment. Retrieved from inking-What-It-Is-and-Why-It-Counts/Critical-Thinking-What-It-Is-and-Why-It-Counts-PDF

Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2003). Educational research: An introduction, 7th edition. Educational Research: An introduction. New York: Pearson A&B Education. Retrieved from https://www.pearson. com/us/higher-education/product/Gall-Educational-Research-An-Introduction/978032108189 6.html

Gengarelly, L. M., & Abrams, E. D. (2009). Closing the gap: Inquiry in research and the secondary science classroom. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18(1), 74–84. doi: 10956-008-9134-2

He, H., Craig, R., & Wen, J. (2013). Developing critical thinking skills and effective co-operative international accounting degree programs in China. Asian Review of Accounting, 21(2), 144–159. doi: 10.1108/ARA-04-2012-0017

Ismail, N. S., Harun, J., Zakaria, M. A. Z. M., & Salleh, S. M. (2017). The effect of mobile problem-based science dictionary application dicscience PBL towards students’ mastery of scientific terms and critical thinking. In 2017 International Conference on Learning and Teaching in Computing and Engineering (LaTICE) (pp. 69–75). IEEE. doi:

Jiun, L. T., & Nurzatulshima, K. (2014). Inquiry in learning. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications, 10, 61–65. doi:

Lai, E. R. (2011). Critical thinking: A literature review. Retrieved from https://images.pearsonassessments. com/images/tmrs/CriticalThinkingReviewFINAL.pdf

Larsson, K. (2017). Understanding and teaching critical thinking — A new approach. International Journal Of Education Research, 84(May), 32–42. doi:

McKenney, S., & Reeves, T. C. (2014). Educational design research. Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology: 4th Ed, 131–140. doi: 11

Nisa, E. K., Koestiari, T., Habibbulloh, M., & Jatmiko, B. (2018). Effectiveness of guided inquiry learning model to improve students’ critical thinking skills at senior high school. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 997(1), 12049. doi:

Nusarastriya, Y. H., Sapriya, H., Wahab, A. A., & Budimansyah, H. D. (2013). Pengembangan berpikir kritis dalam pembelajaran pendidikan kewarganegaraan menggunakan project citizen. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan, 3(3), 444–449. doi:

Onions, P. (2009). Thinking critically: An introduction. Leeds. Retrieved from docs/academic/2009 Thinking critically.pdf

Prihatin, P., Prayitno, B. A., & Rinanto, Y. (2017). Pengembangan modul berbasis inkuiri terbimbing pada materi jamur untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa kelas X SMA Negeri 1 Cepogo Boyolali. Jurnal Inkuiri, 6(1), 75–90. doi:

Rajagukguk, W., & Simanjuntak, E. (2015). Problem-based mathematics teaching kits integrated with ICT to improve students’ critical thinking ability in junior high schools in Medan. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan, 3(3), 347–356. doi:

Rufii, R. (2015). Developing module on constructivist learning strategies to promote students’ independence and performance. International J. of Education, 7(1), 18–28. doi: 75

Rusche, S. N., & Jason, K. (2011). “You have to absorb yourself in it”: Using inquiry and reflection to promote student learning and self-knowledge. Teaching Sociology, 39(4), 338–353. doi: /0092055X11418685

Sarigoz, O. (2012). Assessment of the high school students’ critical thinking skills. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 46, pp. 5315–5319). doi:

Serrat, O. (2017). Critical thinking. In Knowledge Solutions (pp. 1095–1100). Singapore: Springer. doi:

Setiyadi, M. W., Ismail, I., & Gani, H. A. (2017). Pengembangan modul pembelajaran biologi berbasis pendekatan saintifik untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa. Journal of Educational Science and Technology, 3(2), 102–112. doi:

Shehab, H. M., & Nussbaum, E. M. (2015). Cognitive load of critical thinking strategies. Learning and Instruction, 35, 51–61. doi:

Simbolon, D. H., & Sahyar, S. (2015). Pengaruh model pembelajaran inkuiri terbimbing berbasis eksperimen riil dan laboratorium virtual terhadap hasil belajar fisika siswa. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan, 21(3), 299–316. doi:

Sukardjo, M., & Sugiyanta, L. (2018). Analisis strategi pembelajaran matematika kurikulum 2013 dalam rangka meningkatkan nilai PISA matematika. JKPP: Jurnal Kesejahteraan Keluarga Dan Pendidikan, 5(1), 42–64. doi:

Tabačková, Z. (2015). Outside the classroom thinking inside the classroom walls: Enhancing students` critical thinking through reading literary texts. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 186, pp. 726–731). doi:

Thompson, C. (2011). Critical thinking across the curriculum: Process over output. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(9), 1–7. Retrieved from _9_Special_Issue_July_2011/1.pdf

Visande, J. C. (2014). Developing critical thinking skills among education students through formative education. International Journal for Cross-Diciplinary Subjects in Education (IJCDSE), 5(4), 1783–1789. Retrieved from

Vlassi, M., & Karaliota, A. (2013). The comparison between guided inquiry and traditional teaching method. A case study for the teaching of the structure of matter to 8th grade Greek students. In Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 93, pp. 494–497). Elsevier B.V. doi: 13.09.226

Waluyo, S., Prayitno, B. A., & Sugiyarto, S. (2017). Pengembangan modul berbasis guided discovery pada materi jamur untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir analitis. Jurnal Inkuiri, 6(1), 61–74. doi:

Wang, H., & Posey, L. (2011). An inquiry-based linear algebra class. US-China Education Review, 4, 489–494. Retrieved from

Wilkin, C. L. (2017). Enhancing critical thinking: accounting students’ perceptions. Education + Training, 59(1), 15–30. doi:

Zabit, M. N. M. (2010). Problem-based learning on students critical thinking skills in teaching business education in Malaysia: A literature review. American Journal of Business Education (AJBE), 3(6), 19–32. doi:

DOI: | Abstract views : 381 | PDF views : 0


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Irwan et al

License URL:

View JPBI Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.