Characteristic Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on HbA1C

Sulistyo Andarmoyo, Harmy Mohamed Yusoff, Berhanudin Abdullah, Yuzana Mohd Yusop


Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases with hyperglycemia characteristic that occurs due to insulin resistance accompanied by relative insulin deficiency. Monitoring the metabolic status of DM patients is important. One method that can be used to determine blood glucose control in people with DM is measurement of hemoglobin-glycosylated (HbA1c). Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics of DM patients based on HbA1c levels in Ponorogo Regency, East Java, Indonesia. Method: The study used a cross-sectional design, and descriptive data presentation. The study took a sample of 180 people with type 2 diabetes in Ponorogo Regency. Respondent characteristic data in the form of age, sex, education and duration of DM were obtained through interviews, and HbA1c values were obtained by blood tests in a standardized laboratory in Ponorogo Regency. Results: The results of the study shows that 81.7% of 180 DM patients had 16.5% HbA1c values. Patients with HbA1c ≥6.5% are mostly women, old age, low education, and have had suffered DM less than 5 years. Discussion: To prevent further complications, glycemic control is needed through routine and periodic HbA1c checks.


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, HbA1c

Full Text:



American Diabetes Association. (2017). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2017. Diabetes Care, 40(1), 1–142.

Begley, J. (2012). HbA 1c in Diabetes. Case Studies Using IFCC Units . Annals of Clinical Biochemistry: International Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 49(5), 512–512.

Chen, Y. Y., Lin, Y. J., Chong, E., Chen, P. C., Chao, T. F., Chen, S. A., & Chien, K. L. (2015). The Impact of Diabetes Mellitus and Corresponding HbA1c Levels on the Future Risks of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: A Representative Cohort Study in Taiwan. PLoS ONE, 10(4), 1–12.

Chugh SN. (2011). Jaypee Gold Standard Mini Atlas series Diabetes. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.

Claesson, R., Ignell, C., Shaat, N., & Berntorp, K. (2017). HbA1c as a predictor of diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus. Primary Care Diabetes, 11(1), 46–51.

Currie, C. J. (2010). Survival as a function of HbA1c in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study. 375(9713), 481–489.

d’Emden, M. C., Shaw, J. E., Colman, P. G., Colagiuri, S., Twigg, S. M., Jones, G. R. D., … Wah Cheung, N. (2012). The role of HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia, 197(4), 4–6.

Firdaus, A. (2013). Hubungan Lamanya Menderita Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 Terhadap Tingkat Depresi Pada Pasien Poli Penyakit Dalam RSD Dr. Soebandi Jember.

Higgins, T. (2013). HbA1c for screening and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Endocrine, 43(2), 266–273.

Irawan, D. (2010). Prevalensi dan Faktor Risiko Kejadian Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 di Daerah Urban Indonesia. Universitas Indonesia, Depok.

Juarez, D. T., Demaris, K. M., Goo, R., Mnatzaganian, C. L., & Smith, H. W. (2014). Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 7, 487–494.

Kemeskes RI. (2013). Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2013). Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan RI.

Kovatchev, B. P. (2017). Metrics for glycaemic control — from HbA1c to continuous glucose monitoring. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 13, 425–436.

Larose, J., Sigal, R. J., Khandwala, F., Prud’homme, D., Boulé, N. G., & Kenny, G. P. (2011). Associations between physical fitness and HbA1c in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia, 54(1), 93–102.

Qaseem, A., Wilt, T. J., Kansagara, D., Horwitch, C., Barry, M. J., & Forciea, M. A. (2018). Hemoglobin A1c targets for glycemic control with pharmacologic therapy for nonpregnant adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A guidance statement update from the American college of physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 168(8), 569–576.

Rahajeng, E. (2010). Pengaruh Konsumsi Kopi Terhadap Kejadian Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2. Gizi Indonesia, 33(2), 82–95.

Ramadhan, N., & Marissa, N. (2015). Karakteristik Penderita Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2 Berdasarkan Kadar HbA1c di Puskesms Jayabaru Kota Banda Aceh. SEL, 2(2), 49–56.

Renz, P. B., Cavagnolli, G., Weinert, L. S., Silveiro, S. P., & Camargo, J. L. (2015). HbA1c test as a tool in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. PLoS ONE, 10(8), 1–11.

Samberka, A. Z. (2010). Hubungan Usia dan Lama Menderita Diabetes Melitus(DM) dengan Kejadian Disfungsi Ereksi (DE) Pada Pasien Pria DM di Poliklinik Khusus Endokrinologi RS.DR.M. Djamil Padang Tahun 2010.

Seino, Y., Nanjo, K., Tajima, N., Kadowaki, T., Kashiwagi, A., Araki, E., … Ueki, K. (2010). Report of the Committee on the classification and diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus: The Committee of the Japan Diabetes Society on the diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus. Diabetology International, 1(1), 2–20.

Soelistijo, S. A., Novida, H., Rudijanto, A., Soewondo, P., Suastika, K., Manaf, A., … Zufry, H. (2015). Konsensus Penggelolaan dan pencegahan Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2 di Indonesia 2015. Jakarta: Perkeni.

Soranzo, N., Sanna, S., Wheeler, E., Gieger, C., Radke, D., Dupuis, J., … Meigs, J. B. (2010). Common variants at 10 genomic loci influence hemoglobin A1C levels via glycemic and nonglycemic pathways. Diabetes, 59(12), 3229–3239.

Tc, S., Needleman, I., Sh, W., & Ej, M. (2010). Treatment of periodontal disease for glycaemic control in people with diabetes ( Review ) Summary Of Findings For The Main Comparison. The Cochrane COllection, (5), 1–52.

World Health Organization. (2014). Global Status Report On Noncommunicable Diseases 2014. Genewa: World Health Organization.

DOI: | Abstract views : 1993 | PDF views : 1993 |

Copyright (c) 2020 Sulistyo Andarmoyo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



ISSN  2086-3071 (print)| 2443-0900 (online)

This journal is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.