House Environment Factors Related To The Presence Of Mosquito Larvae
Background: Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes and is one of the health problems in community. DHF is currently still a health problem in Indonesia because the incidence of DHF cannot be reduced. The DHF morbidity in Indonesia in 2015 reached 50.75 per 100,000 populations, and the Incidence Rate (IR) in 2016 reached 78.85 per 100,000 populations, exceeding the national IR target (49 per 100,000 populations). The presence of mosquito larvae is an indicator of mosquitoes in an area. As a matter of fact, there are many factors that affect the presence of mosquito larvae.
Objective: To determine the house environment factors related with the presence of mosquito larvae
Method: Observational analytic with cross-sectional design. The sampling used cases and controls of 285 houses. The sample filled out the informed consent agreement, then the researchers gave the questionnaire, and made observations, next the researchers filled out the checklist according to the observation. The data were analyzed in bivariate technique with chi-square test, followed by multivariate test using logistic regression test.
Results: The results of the multivariate test showed 7 factors that influenced the presence of larvae, consisting of the variables of PSN (Mosquito Breeding Ground Eradication) action (p = 0.012; OR = 0.022; CI = 0.001-0.435), PSN attitude (p = 0.005; OR = 1658247.9; OR: CI = 0.000-0.014), Number of people in the house (p = 0.013; OR = 0.071; CI = 1.731-113.550), Frequency of cleaning containers (p = 0.006; OR = 1139.1; CI = 0.000-0.080), Mosquito breeding sites (p = 0.006; OR = 0.006; CI = 0.424-6148.76), Fish in containers (p = 0.003; OR = 434.272; CI = 0.000-0.134), container location (p = 0.007; OR = 0.006 ; CI = 4.047- 4653.77).
Conclusion: Many factors affect the presence of mosquito larvae, both in the home environment and containers owned by residents of the house. The presence of fish in containers is the most influential factor. Breeding fish as mosquito larva predators is included as parts of 3M Plus which is quite easy to do by the community. Thus, it requires maximum effort to increase knowledge of the community about these steps.
Abinaya, R. et al. (2018) ‘Assessment of environmental factors associated with dengue spread in an urban area of Puducherry’, International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 5(7), p. 3020. doi: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20182641.
Al-Ghamdi, K. M. et al. (2014) ‘Monitoring larval populations of Aedes aegypti in different residential districts of Jeddah governorate, Saudi Arabia’, Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 12(3–4), pp. 448–452.
Alma, L. R. (2014) ‘Pengaruh Status Penguasaan Tempat Tinggal Dan Perilaku Psn Dbd Terhadap Keberadaan Jentik Di Kelurahan Sekaran Kota Semarang’, Unnes Journal of Public Health., 3(3), pp. 1–9. doi: 10.15294/ujph.v3i3.3541.
Arosteguí, J. et al. (2017) ‘Beyond efficacy in water containers: Temephos and household entomological indices in six studies between 2005 and 2013 in Managua, Nicaragua’, BMC Public Health, 17(Suppl 1). doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4296-6.
Basso, C. et al. (2017) ‘Scaling up of an innovative intervention to reduce risk of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika transmission in Uruguay in the framework of an intersectoral approach with and without community participation’, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 97(5), pp. 1428–1436. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0061.
Bestari, R. S. et al. (2018) ‘Hubungan Tingkat Pengetahuan Dan Perilaku Mahasiswa Tentang Pemberantasan Sarang Nyamuk (Psn) Demam Berdarah Dengue (Dbd) Terhadap Keberadaan Jentik Aedes Aegypti the Correlation Between Educational Level and Behaviour of University Student About Mosquito’, 10(1), pp. 1–5.
Dom, N. C. et al. (2016) ‘Water quality characteristics of dengue vectors breeding containers’, International Journal of Mosquito Research, 3(1), pp. 25–29.
Elsinga, J. et al. (2017) ‘Community participation in mosquito breeding site control: An interdisciplinary mixed methods study in Curaçao’, Parasites and Vectors. Parasites & Vectors, 10(1). doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2371-6.
Heriyani, F. 2019, ‘CORRELATION BETWEEN AIR TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY’. Berkala Kedokteran Vol. 15 No. 1 Februari 2019 : 1-6
Islam, S. et al. (2019) ‘Role of container type, behavioural, and ecological factors in Aedes pupal production in Dhaka, Bangladesh: An application of zero-inflated negative binomial model’, Acta Tropica. Elsevier, 193(February), pp. 50–59. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.02.019.
Jemal, Y. and Al-Thukair, A. A. (2018) ‘Combining GIS application and climatic factors for mosquito control in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia’, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. King Saud University, 25(8), pp. 1593–1602. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.04.001.
Jiménez-Alejo, A. et al. (2017) ‘Pupal productivity in rainy and dry seasons: Findings from the impact survey of a randomised controlled trial of dengue prevention in Guerrero, Mexico’, BMC Public Health, 17(Suppl 1). doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4294-8.
Kreppel, K. S. et al. (2016) ‘Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the development times and survival of Synopsyllus fonquerniei and Xenopsylla cheopis, the flea vectors of plague in Madagascar’, Parasites and Vectors. Parasites & Vectors, 9(1), pp. 1–10. doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1366-z.
Lagu, A. M. H., Damayati, D. S. and Muhammad Wardiman (2017) ‘Hubungan Jumlah Penghuni, Jumlah Tempat Penampungan Air dan Pelaksanaan 3M Plus dengan Keberadaan Jentik Nyamuk Aedes Sp di Kelurahan Balleangin Kecamatan Balocci Kabupaten Pangkep’, Higiene, 3, pp. 22–29.
Lin, C. H. et al. (2018) ‘Location, seasonal, and functional characteristics of water holding containers with juvenile and pupal Aedes aegypti in Southern Taiwan: A cross-sectional study using hurdle model analyses’, PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 12(10), p. e0006882. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006882.
Listyorini, P. I. (2016) ‘Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Perilaku Pemberantasan Sarang Nyamuk (PSN) Pada Masyarakat Karangjati Kabupaten Blora’, Journal INFOKES, 6(1), pp. 6–15.
Liu, X. et al. (2019) ‘Breeding site characteristics and associated factors of Culex pipiens complex in Lhasa, Tibet, P. R. China’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(8). doi: 10.3390/ijerph16081407.
Morales-Pérez, A., Nava-Aguilera, E., Balanzar-Martínez, A., et al. (2017) ‘Aedes aegypti breeding ecology in Guerrero: Cross-sectional study of mosquito breeding sites from the baseline for the Camino Verde trial in Mexico’, BMC Public Health, 17(Suppl 1). doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4293-9.
Morales-Pérez, A., Nava-Aguilera, E., Legorreta-Soberanis, J., et al. (2017) ‘“where we put little fish in the water there are no mosquitoes:” A cross-sectional study on biological control of the Aedes aegypti vector in 90 coastal-region communities of Guerrero, Mexico’, BMC Public Health, 17(Suppl 1). doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4302-z.
Ningsih, F. and Zakaria, I. J. (2016) ‘The microhabitat preferences of mosquito genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia’, International Journal of Mosquito Research, 3(5), pp. 36–40.
Nofita, E., Rusdji, S. R. and Irawati, N. (2017) ‘Analysis of indicators entomology Aedes aegypti in endemic areas of dengue fever in Padang, West sumatra, Indonesia’, International Journal of Mosquito Research, 4(2), pp. 57–59.
Okoye, C. O. and Nwachukwu, M. C. (2014) ‘Human Induced Environmental Factors and Mosquito Breeding in Enugu Urban-Nigeria’, American Journal of Engineering Research, 3(5), pp. 57–63. Available at: http://www.ajer.org/papers/v3(5)/G0355763.pdf.
On, G. et al. (2017) ‘Abundance of Mosquitoes larvae in various microhabitats and the concern for invasion of human community’, International Journal of Mosquito Research, 4(4), pp. 119–125.
Overgaard, H. J. et al. (2017) ‘A cross-sectional survey of Aedes aegypti immature abundance in urban and rural household containers in central Colombia’, Parasites and Vectors. Parasites & Vectors, 10(1), pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2295-1.
Paz-Soldán, V. A. et al. (2015) ‘Dengue knowledge and preventive practices in Iquitos, Peru’, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 93(6), pp. 1330–1337. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0096.
Putra, R. E. et al. (2016) ‘Detection of insecticide resistance in the larvae of some Aedes aegypti ( Diptera: Culicidae ) strains from Java, Indonesia to Temephos, Malathion and Permethrin’, International Journal of Mosquito Research, 3(3), pp. 23–28.
Reinhold, J. M., Lazzari, C. R. and Lahondère, C. (2018) ‘Effects of the environmental temperature on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes: A review’, Insects, 9(4). doi: 10.3390/insects9040158.
Ryan, S. J. et al. (2019) ‘Socio-ecological factors associated with dengue risk and Aedes aegypti presence in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(5), pp. 1–16. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16050682.
Sanyaolu, A. (2017) ‘Global Epidemiology of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: An Update’, Journal of Human Virology & Retrovirology, 5(6). doi: 10.15406/jhvrv.2017.05.00179.
Sharma, A., Gupta, V. and Khandelwal, A. (2017) ‘The knowledge, attitude and practices regarding commonly occurring mosquito borne diseases among people in catering area of urban health and training centre’, International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 4(8), p. 2864. doi: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173336.
Siregar, F. A. et al. (2015) ‘Social and environmental determinants of dengue infection risk in North Sumatera Province, Indonesia’, Asian Journal of Epidemiology, 8(2), pp. 23–35. doi: 10.3923/aje.2015.23.35.
Vannavong, N. et al. (2017) ‘Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand’, Parasites and Vectors. Parasites & Vectors, 10(1), pp. 1–14. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2107-7.
Walker, K. R. et al. (2018) ‘Socioeconomic and human behavioral factors associated with Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) immature habitat in Tucson, AZ’, Journal of Medical Entomology, 55(4), pp. 955–963. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjy011.
Widawati, M. and Kusumastuti, N. H. (2017) ‘Insektisida Rumah Tangga dan Keberadaan Larva Aedes aegypti di Jakarta Selatan’, ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, 9(1), pp. 35–42. doi: 10.22435/aspirator.v9i1.5562.35-42.
Xiang, J. et al. (2017) ‘Association between dengue fever incidence and meteorological factors in Guangzhou, China, 2005–2014’, Environmental Research. Elsevier, 153(November 2016), pp. 17–26. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.11.009.
Copyright (c) 2022 Gita Sekar Prihanti, Diajeng Septi A, Faiz Zulkifli, Rachma Ferdiana, Silvia Aruma Lestari, Siti Dewi A, Umar, Zatil Aqmar, Amira Tauhida
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.