DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION IN ACCOMMODATING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES OF EFL STUDENTS
Keywords:Differentiated Instruction, Individual Differences, EFL, ELT
Many EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classrooms all around the globe are full of students with individual differences. Evidently, the students possess individual differences because they come from various settings with diverse backgrounds. The divergences among students might be unique in nature and they could possibly affect the English teaching and learning process. One of the clear examples is the fact that not all learning instructions provided by teachers are effective in accommodating the differences in the classroom. This situation leads to the emergence of implementing differentiated instruction, often believed to be able to give the students equal chances to learn and experience English effectively at their full potential. This library-based paper reviews several previous practices of differentiated instruction in English classrooms. Further, it attempts to examine how differentiated instruction has been implemented in various EFL contexts. It also attempts to reveal the fundamental reasons behind the success of differentiated instruction in the many English classrooms by relating theories and practices of the previous research studies focused on the topic. This paper ends with a summary of the various findings and discusses it in the light of theories and literatures in differentiated instruction with a particular interest in EFL settings.
Alavinia, P. & Farhady, S. (2012). Using differentiated instruction to teach vocabulary in mixed ability classes with a focus on multiple intelligences and learning styles. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2(4), 72 – 82. Aliakbaria, M., & Haghighib, J. K. (2014). On the effectiveness of differentiated instruction in the enhancement of Iranian learners reading comprehension in separate gender education, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, (98), 182 – 189. Allen, L., Forsten, C., Hollas, B., Nickelsen, L., Rice, L., & Shackleford, M. (2008). Differentiated instruction: theory into practice for grades K-8. New Hampshire: Staff Development for Educators. Borja, L. A., Soto, Sandy T., & Sanchez, T. X. (2015). Differentiating instruction for EFL learners. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 5(8), 30-36. Butt, M. & Kausar, S. (2010). A comparative study using differentiated instructions of public and private school teachers. Malaysian Journal of Distance Education, 12(1), 105-124. Chien, C. W. (2012). Language teacher research differentiated instruction in an elementary school EFL classroom. TESOL Journal, 3(2), 280 – 291. Heacox, D. (2012). Differentiating instruction in the regular classroom: how to reach and teach all learners. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing Inc. Hogan, E. R. (2009). Differentiated instruction and tiered assignments. Paper 77. St. John Fisher College: Fisher Digital Publications. Johnson, A. (2001). How to use thinking skills to differentiate curricula for gifted and highly creative students. Gifted Child Today, 24, 58-63. Lewis. S. G. & Batts, K. (2005). How to implement differentiated instruction? Journal of Scaffolding Development, 26, 26-31. Levy, H. M., (2008). Meeting the needs of all students through differentiated instruction: Helping every child reach and exceed standards. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 81(4), 161-164. Logan, B. (2011). Examining differentiated instruction: Teachers respond. Research in Higher Education Journal, 1(3), 1 – 14. Nordlund, M. (2003). Differentiated instruction: meeting the educational needs of all students in your classroom. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield. Santangelo, T., & Tomlinson, C. A. (2012). Teacher educators' perceptions and use of differentiated instruction practices: an exploratory investigation. Action in Teacher Education, 34(4), 309-327. Richards, M. R. E., Omdal, S.N. (2007). Effects of tiered instruction on academic performance in a secondary science course. Journal of advanced academics. 18(3), 424–453. Robinson, L., Maldonado, M., & Whaley, J. (2014). Perceptions about implementation of differentiated instruction. Paper presented at the Annual Mid-South Educational Research (MSERA) conference. Knoxville, Tennessee. Rogers, K. B. (1996). Ability grouping and gifted students. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia: University of New South Wales, Gifted Education Research, Resource and Information Centre. Tomlinson, C. A. (2000). Reconcilable differences? Standards-based teaching and differentiation. Educational Leadership, 58(1), 6 –11. Tomlinson, C. A. & Allan, S. (2000). Leadership for differentiating schools and classrooms. Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development 2nd edition.
How to Cite
- Authors retain copyright to publish without restrictions and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.