Problem-based learning: Generates higher-order thinking skills of tenth graders in ecosystem concept


  • Siti Ramdiah Biology Education Study Program, STKIP PGRI Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan
  • H. Abidinsyah Biology Education Study Program, STKIP PGRI Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan
  • Ria Mayasari Biology Education Study Program, STKIP PGRI Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan



Ecosytem concept, HOTS, PBL, skills


This study aimed to determine the effect of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model on tenth grade students’ higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) in ecosystem concept. The design of this study was quasi experimental research with "nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design". The population of this study was X grade students in Senior High School (SHS) Kandangan, South Kalimantan. The sample were chosen through random sampling technique. The sample will be tested for equivalence based on the data of from the report card from the first semester. The instrument of data collection is students' HOTS rubric that developed by Hart (1994) with a range of scores for each question ranging from 0 to 4. One way analysis of variance (anava) was used as hypothesis test in this study. The result showed that PBL learning model had a positive effect on HOTS. It can be seen from the average of HOTS level of control class was 28.40 and treatment class was 36,23 and seen from F value = 20.97 whereas F table = 0.05 means F arithmetic > F table.


Download data is not yet available.


Armbruster, P., Patel, M., Johnson, E., & Weiss, M. (2009). Active learning and student-centered pedagogy improve student attitudes and performance in introductory biology. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 8(200), 203–213.

Bell, S. (2010). Project-Based Learning for the 21st Century: skills for the future. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83(2), 39–3.

Buku, M. N. I., Mite, Y., Fauzi, A., Widiansyah, A. T., & Anugerah, D. Y. (2015). Penerapan pembelajaran cooperative script berbasis lesson study sebagai upaya peningkatan keaktifan lisan dan kecakapan sosial mahasiswa SI Pendidikan Biologi matakuliah strategi belajar mengajar. In Proceedings of the 2nd Seminar & Workshop Nasional Biologi, IPA, dan Pembelajarannya FMIPA UM (pp. 603–606). Malang: Biologi FMIPA UM. Retrieved from

Cahyadi, V. (2004). The effect of interactive engagement teaching on student understanding of introductory physics at the faculty of engineering , University of Surabaya , Indonesia. Higher Education Research & Development, 23(4), 455–464.

Cobern, W. W. (Ed.). (1998). Socio-cultural perspectives on science education: an international dialogue. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Ersoy, E., & Baser, N. e. (2014). The effects of Problem-Based Learning method in higher education on creative thinking. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 3494–3498.

Fauzi, A. (2013). Pengaruh kemampuan akademik terhadap keterampilan metakognitif, hasil belajar biologi, dan retensi siswa SMA Kelas X dengan penerapan strategi pembelajaran Cooperative Script di Malang. Universitas Negeri Malang.

Fauzi, A., Corebima, A. D., & Zubaidah, S. (2016). The utilization of ferns as a model organism for studying natural polyploidization concept in genetics course. In International Conference on Education (pp. 51–58). Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang. Retrieved from

Fauzi, A., & Ramadani, S. D. (2017). Learning the genetics concepts through project activities using Drosophila melanogaster : a qualitative descriptive study. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 3(3), 238–247.

Fitri, N., & Ramdiah, S. (2017). Pengaruh model pembelajaran problem based learning (pbl) terhadap hasil belajar kognitif siswa kelas XI sma negeri Kota Banjarmasin. Jurnal Pendidikan Hayati, 3(4), 125–135. Retrieved from

Ganiron Jr, T. U. (2014). The impact of higher level thinking on students’ achievement toward project management course. International Journal of U- and E- Serice, Science, and Technology, 7(3), 217–226.

Hart, D. (1994). Autentic assesment a handbook for educator. California: Addison Wesley Publishing company.

Haryati, Manurung, B., & Gultom, T. (2017). The effect of learning model on higher order thinking and student science process skills in ecology. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), 4(10), 150–155.

Husamah, & Pantiwati, Y. (2014). Cooperative learning STAD-PjBL: motivation, thinking skills, and learning outcomes of Biology Department students. International Journal of Education Learning and Development, 2(1), 77–94. Retrieved from

Ismail, N. M., & Fata, I. A. (2016). Posner’s analysis on Indonesian Curriculum 2013. In Proceedings of the 1st English Education International Conference (EEIC) in conjunction with the 2nd Reciprocal Graduate Research Symposium (RGRS) of the Consortium of Asia-Pacific Education Universities (CAPEU) between Sultan Idris Education University a (pp. 341–345). Retrieved from

Johnson, E. R. (2009). Academic language! academic literacy!: a guide for K–12 educators. Thousand Oaks: Corwin.

Khasanah, U., & Astuti, D. (2018). Developing mathematics learning model of Thinking Empowerment by Question ( TEQ ) with TAI setting to improve students’ metacognition ability. International Journal of Active Learning, 3(2), 80–85. Retrieved from

Magsino, R. M. (2014). Enhancing higher order thinking skills in a marine biology class through Problem-Based Learning. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(5), 1–6. Retrieved from

Moutinho, S., Torres, J., Fernandes, I., & Vasconcelos, C. (2015). Problem-Based Learning and Nature of Science: a study with science teachers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 1871–1875.

Roth, W., & Hwang, S. (2011). Scientific & mathematical bodies: the interface of culture and mind. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Sastrawati, E., Rusdi, M., & Syamsurizal. (2011). Problem-Based Learning, strategi metakognisi, dan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi siswa. Tekno-Pedagogi, 1(2), 1–14. Retrieved from

Seel, N. M. (Ed.). (2012). Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Şener, S., & Saridoǧan, E. (2011). The effects of science-technology-innovation on competitiveness and economic growth. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 815–828.

Setiawati, H., & Corebima, A. D. (2017). Empowering critical thinking skills of the students having different academic ability in biology learning of Senior High School through PQ4R - TPS Strategy. The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, 4(5), 3521–3526.

Simon, R. J., Banks, L., & Bromirski, D. (2003). Global perspectives on social issues: education. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Sumantri, M. S. (2015). Strategi pembelajaran : teori dan praktek di tingkat pendidikan dasar. Jakarta: Rajawali Pers.

Suprijono, A. (2009). Cooperative learning. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Suriansyah, A., & Aslamiah, A. (2014). Strategi pembelajaran. Jakarta: Rajawali Press.

Surya, E., & Syahputra, E. (2017). Improving high-level thinking skills by development of learning PBL approach on the learning mathematics for Senior High School students. International Education Studies, 10(8), 12–20.

Zohar, A., & Dori, Y. J. (2003). Higher order thinking skills and low-achieving students : are they mutually exclusive ? Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12(2), 145–181.






Instructional Model