Improving student learning outcomes in science subjects through the implementation of PBL-based module

Eva Nursa’ban, Mohammad Masykuri, Sri Yamtinah


Problem-based learning (PBL) has been reported as one of the learning models which can improve student learning outcomes optimally. Unfortunately, the frequency of implementing PBL and the teacher knowledge level about PBL is not optimal yet. This quantitative descriptive study aimed at determining the effect of PBL-based modules implementation on student learning outcomes. The population of this study was the XI grade students of SMAN 2 Wera in which the sample was the students of XI-Natural Science Class. Test was chosen as an instrument in the data collection process which was given at the beginning and the end of the implementation. The dependent-test was performed, after collecting the data. The study results indicated that the student learning outcomes increased significantly. Therefore, the application of PBL-based module is recommended to be carried out during science learning of XI graders.


PBL-based module; problem-based learning; science learning outcomes

Full Text:



Adnan, A., & Bahri, A. (2018). Beyond effective teaching: Enhancing students’ metacognitive skill through guided inquiry. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 954, p. 12022). doi:

Ajaja, O. P. (2013). Which strategy best suits biology teaching? Lecturing, concept mapping, cooperative learning or learning cycle?. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 17(1), 1–37. Retrieved from

Ajaja, O. P., & Eravwoke, O. U. (2010). Effects of cooperative learning strategy on junior secondary school students achievement in integrated science. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 14(1), 1–18. Retrieved from

Akcay, B. (2009). Problem-based learning in science education. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 6(1), 26–36. Retrieved from

Alfares, N. (2017). Benefits and difficulties of learning in group work in EFL classes in Saudi Arabia. English Language Teaching, 10(7), 247. doi:

Arends, R. I. (2012). Learning to teach (Ninth). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from

Argaw, A. S., Haile, B. B., Ayalew, B. T., & Kuma, S. G. (2017). The effect of problem based learning (PBL) instruction on students’ motivation and problem solving skills of physics. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(3), 857–871. doi:

Asrizal, Amran, A., Ananda, A., Festiyed. (2017). Need analysis to develop adaptive contextual learning model. In Proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Teacher Education (Vol. 1, pp. 78–83). doi:

Bahri, S., Syamsuri, I., & Mahanal, S. (2016). Pengembangan modul keanekaragaman hayati dan virus berbasis model inkuiri terbimbing untuk siswa kelas X MAN 1 Malang. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, dan Pengembangan, 1(2), 127–136. doi:

Barke, H.-D., Hazari, A., & Yitbarek, S. (2009). Misconceptions in chemistry. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Belecina, R. R., & Ocampo, J. M. (2018). Effecting change on students’ critical thinking in problem solving. EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies International Journal for Educational Studies. 10(102), 109–118. Retrieved from

Birgili, B. (2015). Creative and critical thinking skills in problem-based learning environments. Journal of Gifted Education and Creativity, 2(2), 71–80. doi:

Buah, E., & Akuffo, A. F. (2017). The Science Topics Perceived Difficult by Junior High School Students at Techiman North District: Effects on the teaching and learning of Science. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 3(1), 503–509. Retrieved from

Burgess, A., Roberts, C., Ayton, T., & Mellis, C. (2018). Implementation of modified team-based learning within a problem based learning medical curriculum: A focus group study. BMC Medical Education, 18(1), 1–7. doi:

Dogra, B. (2010). Constructivist classroom activities for biology learning. Education India Journal, 36(1), 1–15. doi:

Eldy, E. F., & Sulaiman, F. (2014). Integrated PBL approach: Findings towards physics students’ critical thinking. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 2(2), 75–81. Retrieved from

El-Shaer, A., & Gaber, H. (2014). Impact of problem-based learning on student critical thinking dispositions, knowledge acquisition and retention. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(14), 74–85. doi:

Ergul, R., Simsekli, Y., Calis, S., Ozdilek, Z., Gocmencelebi, S., & Sanli, M. (2011). The effects of inquiry-based science teaching on elementary school students ’ science process skills and science attitudes. Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy (BJSEP), 5(1), 48–68. Retrieved from

Etobro, A. B., & Fabinu, O. E. (2017). Students’ perceptions of difficult concepts in Biology in senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Global Journal of Educational Research, 16, 139–147. doi:

Fleischner, T. L., Espinoza, R. E., Gerrish, G. A., Greene, H. W., Kimmerer, R. W., Lacey, E. A., … Zander, L. (2017). Teaching biology in the field: Importance, challenges, and solutions. BioScience, 67(6), 558–567. doi:

Gay, L. R., Mills, G. L., & Airasian, P. (2012). Educational research: competencies for analysis and application. Boston: Pearson. Retrieved from Book Educational Research L R Gay Pearson 2012.pdf

Gorghiu, G., Drăghicescu, L. M., Cristea, S., Petrescu, A.-M., & Gorghiu, L. M. (2015). Problem-based Learning - An efficient learning strategy in the science lessons context. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 191, pp. 1865–1870). Elsevier. doi:

Hou, S. I. (2014). Integrating problem-based learning with community-engaged learning in teaching program development and implementation. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 2(1), 1–9. doi:

Huda, M. S., Arsana, I. M. (2013). Pengembangan modul pembelajaran thermal radiation untuk menunjang perkuliahan perpindahan panas mahasiswa D3 Teknik Mesin FT UNESA. Jurnal Pendidikan Teknik Mesin, 2(1), 15–23. Retrieved from

Hudec, R., Tisonova, J., Bozekova, L., Wawruch, M., Kriska, M., & Kristova, V. (2009). Modified problem-based learning in pharmacology. Bratislava Medical Journal, 110(11), 732–735. Retrieved from

Ismail, N. S., Harun, J., Zakaria, M. A. Z. M., & Salleh, S. M. (2017). The effect of mobile problem-based science dictionary application dicscience PBL towards students’ mastery of scientific terms and critical thinking. In 2017 International Conference on Learning and Teaching in Computing and Engineering (LaTICE) (pp. 69–75). IEEE. doi:

Iversen, A., Pedersen, A. S., Krogh, L., & Jensen, A. A. (2015). Learning, leading, and letting go of control: Learner-led approaches in education. SAGE Open, 5(4), 1–11. doi:

Jiun, L. T., & Nurzatulshima, K. (2014). Inquiry in learning. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications, 10, 61–65. doi:

Jonassen, D. (2011). Supporting problem solving in PBL. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 5(2), 95–119. doi:

Kadbey, H., Dickson, M., & McMinn, M. (2015). Primary teachers’ perceived challenges in teaching science in Abu Dhabi public schools. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 186, pp. 749–757). Elsevier B.V. doi:

Karami, M., Karami, Z., & Attaran, M. (2013). Integrating problem-based learning with ICT for developing trainee teachers’ content knowledge and teaching skill. Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 9(1), 36–49. Retrieved from

Karpudewan, M., Zain, A. N. M., & Chandrasegaran, A. L. (2017). Overcoming students’ misconceptions in science. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. doi:

Klucevsek, K. M., & Brungard, A. B. (2016). Information literacy in science writing: how students find, identify, and use scientific literature. International Journal of Science Education, 38(17), 2573–2595. doi:

Kola, A. J. (2013). Importance of science education to national development and problems militating against its development. American Journal of Educational Research, 1(7), 225–229. doi:

Kurniati, I., & Surya, E. (2017). Student’s perception of their teacher teaching style’s. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 33(2), 91–98. Retrieved from's_Perception_of_their_Teacher_Teaching_Style's

Lai, E. (2011). Motivation: A literature review. Alwasy Learning. Retrieved from

Leow, F.-T., & Neo, M. (2014). Interactive multimedia learning: innovating classroom education in a Malaysian University. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 13(2), 99–110. Retrieved from

Lewinsohn, T. M., Attayde, J. L., Fonseca, C. R., Ganade, G., Jorge, L. R., Kollmann, J., … Wolfgang W Weisse. (2014). Ecological literacy and beyond : Problem-based learning for future professionals. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Juni, 1–9. doi:

Liceaga, A. M., Ballard, T. S., & Skura, B. J. (2011). Incorporating a modified problem-based learning Exercise in a traditional lecture and lab-based dairy products course. Journal of Food Science Education, 10(2), 19–22. doi:

Maryani, I., Martaningsih, S. T., & Bhakti, C. P. (2017). Module based on pedagogical content knowledge to increase the engagement and skills of the future teachers in designing a lesson plan. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 11(1), 91–102. doi:

McCrum, D. P. (2017). Evaluation of creative problem-solving abilities in undergraduate structural engineers through interdisciplinary problem-based learning. European Journal of Engineering Education, 42(6), 684–700. doi:

Miharja, F. J., Syamsuri, I., & Saptasari, M. (2015). Pengembangan modul anatomi fisiologi manusia dengan model pembelajaran berbasis masalah untuk meningkatkan kompetensi mahasiswa program studi pendidikan biologi. In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pendidikan Biologi (pp. 220–227). Malang. Retrieved from

Miri, B., David, B., & Uri, Z. (2007). Purposely teaching for the promotion of higher-order thinking skills: A case of critical thinking. Research in Science Education, 37, 353–369. doi:

Mustaffa, N., & Ismail, Z. (2015). Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in schools: A meta-analysis. In 12th International Conference of The Mathematics Education into the 21st Century Project The Future of Mathematics Education in a Connected World. Herceg Novi. Retrieved from

Nazir, M., & Zabit, M. (2010). Problem-based learning on students’ critical thinking skills in teaching business education in Malaysia: A literature review. American Journal of Business Education, 3(6), 19–32. Retrieved from

Omorogbe, E., & Ewansiha, J. (2013). The challenge of effective science teaching in Nigerian secondary schools. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(7), 181–188. doi:

Pelawi, H. S., & Sinulingga, K. (2016). Pengaruh model problem based learning dan motivasi belajar terhadap hasil belajar siswa di kelas X SMA Sinar Husni. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika, 5(1), 32–37. doi:

Putrayasa, I. B. (2018). Teaching and learning of Indonesian by constructivism model with inquiry approach. KnE Social Sciences, 3(9), 764–772. doi:

Rahayu, S. (2017). Promoting the 21st century scientific literacy skills through innovative chemistry instruction. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 20025, p. 20025). AIP Publishing. doi:

Ravitz, J. (2009). Introduction: Summarizing findings and looking ahead to a new generation of PBL research. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 3(1), 4–11. doi:

Rufii, R. (2015). Developing module on constructivist learning strategies to promote students’ independence and performance. International Journal of Education, 7(1), 18–28. doi:

Sada, A. M., Mohd, Z. A., Adnan, A., & Yusri, K. (2016). Prospects of problem-based learning in building critical thinking skills among technical college students in Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(3), 356–365. doi:

Savery, J. R. (2006). Overview of problem-based learning: definitions and distinctions. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 1(1), 13. doi:

Serevina, V., Sunaryo, S., Raihanati, R., Astra, I. M., & Sari, I. J. (2018). Development of e-module based on Problem Based Learning (PBL) on heat and temperature to improve student’s science process skill. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 17(3), 26–37. Retrieved from

Serrat, M. A., Dom, A. M., Buchanan, J. T., Williams, A. R., Efaw, M. L., & Richardson, L. L. (2014). Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy. Anatomical Sciences Education, 7(5), 406–416. doi:

Setiyadi, M. W., Ismail, I., & Gani, H. A. (2017). Pengembangan modul pembelajaran biologi berbasis pendekatan saintifik untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa. Journal of Educational Science and Technology, 3(2), 102–112. doi:

Shaaruddin, J., & Mohamad, M. (2017). Identifying the effectiveness of active learning strategies and benefits in curriculum and pedagogy course for undergraduate TESL students. Creative Education, 8(14), 2312–2324. doi:

Shirazi, S. (2017). Student experience of school science. International Journal of Science Education, 39(14), 1891–1912. doi:

Sihaloho, R. R., Sahyar, S., & Ginting, E. M. (2017). The effect of Problem Based Learning (PBL) model toward student’s creative thinking and problem solving ability in senior high school. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSRJRME), 7(4), 11–18. doi:

Siswati, B. H., & Corebima, A. D. (2017). Study on the correlation between metacognitive skills and concept gaining of biology at several learning models. In Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching (Vol. 18, pp. 1–14). Retrieved from

Slavin, R. E. (2014). Cooperative learning and academic achievement: Why does groupwork work? Anales de Psicología, 30(3), 785–791. doi:

Suryawati, E., & Osman, K. (2018). Contextual learning: Innovative approach towards the development of students’ scientific attitude and natural science performance. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(1), 61–76. doi:

Tiantong, M., & Teemuangsai, S. (2013). The four scaffolding modules for collaborative problem-based learning through the computer network on moodle lms for the computer programming course. International Education Studies, 6(5), 47–55. doi:

Tompo, B., Ahmad, A., & Muris, M. (2016). The development of discovery-inquiry learning model to reduce the science misconceptions of junior high school students. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(12), 5676–5686. Retrieved from

Ulger, K. (2018). The effect of problem-based learning on the creative thinking and critical thinking disposition of students in visual arts education. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 12(1). doi:

Waluyo, S., Prayitno, B. A., & Sugiyarto, S. (2017). Pengembangan modul berbasis guided discovery pada materi jamur untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir analitis. Jurnal Inkuiri, 6(1), 61–74. doi:

Yew, E. H. J., & Goh, K. (2016). Problem-based learning: An overview of its process and impact on learning. Health Professions Education, 2(2), 75–79. doi:

Yulianti, D. (2017). Problem-based learning model used to scientific approach based worksheet for physics to develop senior high school students characters. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 824, p. 12009). doi:

Zabit, M. N. M. (2010). Problem-based learning on students critical thinking skills in teaching business education in Malaysia: A literature review. American Journal of Business Education (AJBE), 3(6), 19–32. doi:

Zakariya, Y. F., Ibrahim, M. O., & Adisa, L. O. (2016). Impacts of problem-based Learning on performance and retention in mathematics among junior secondary school students in Sabon-Gari Area of Kaduna State. International Journal for Innovative Research in Multidisciplinary Field, 2(9), 42–47. Retrieved from

Zamani, M. (2016). Cooperative learning: Homogeneous and heterogeneous grouping of Iranian EFL learners in a writing context. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1–11. doi:

Zhang, Y., Zhou, L., Liu, X., Liu, L., Wu, Y., Zhao, Z., … Yi, D. (2015). The Effectiveness of the Problem-based learning teaching model for use in Introductory Chinese Undergraduate Medical Courses: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE, 10(3). doi:

Zulfikar, T. (2013). Looking from within: Prospects and challenges for progressive education in Indonesia. International Journal of Progressive Education, 9(3), 124–136. Retrieved from

DOI: | Abstract views : 206 | PDF views : 0


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Nursa’ban et al

License URL:

View JPBI Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.