The effect of problem-based learning and naturalist intelligence on students' understanding of environmental conservation

S. Suhirman, Y. Yusuf


Environmental conservation understanding is one of the crucial factors which determines student attitudes and behavior towards the environment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of problem-based learning and naturalist intelligence on the students' understanding of environmental conservation. This experimental research was conducted at Madrasah Aliyah Negeri (MAN) 1 Praya which employed factorial design. The first factor was the levels of naturalist intelligence (high and low) and the second factor was learning forms (problem-based and expository learning). Two groups were randomly selected from X-MIPA graders of MAN 1 Praya. The data were collected through tests which then were analyzed using ANOVA at 0.05 significance level. The results of the study indicated that problem-based learning affected the students’ understanding of environmental conservation, while naturalist intelligence did not affect it. Furthermore, there were no interaction between these two factors.


environmental conservation understanding; naturalist intelligence; problem-based learning

Full Text:



Aidoo, B., Ofori, I., Boateng, S. K., & Kissi, P. S. (2016). Effect of problem-based learning on students’ achievement in chemistry. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(33), 103–108. Retrieved from

Ajzen, I., Joyce, N., Sheikh, S., & Cote, N. G. (2011). Knowledge and the prediction of behavior: The role of information accuracy in the theory of planned behavior. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 33(2), 101–117. doi:

Ali, S. S. (2019). Problem based learning: A student-centered approach. English Language Teaching, 12(5), 73–78. doi:

Amoako-Sakyi, D., & Amonoo-Kuofi, H. (2015). Problem-based learning in resource-poor settings: Lessons from a medical school in Ghana. BMC Medical Education, 15(1), 221. doi:

Andrady, A., Aucamp, P. J., Austin, A. T., Bais, A. F., Ballaré, C. L., Barnes, P. W., & Bernhard, G. H. (2017). Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2016. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences : Official Journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology, 16(2), 107–145. doi:

Anugraheni, I. (2018). A meta-analysis of problem-based learning models in Increasing critical thinking skills in elementary schools. Polyglot: Jurnal Ilmiah, 14(1), 9–18.

Argaw, A. S., Haile, B. B., Ayalew, B. T., & Kuma, S. G. (2017). The effect of problem based learning (PBL) instruction on students’ motivation and problem solving skills of physics. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(3), 857–871. doi:

Armstrong T. (2009). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Alexandria Virginia, USA: ASCD Association for Supervition Curruculum Develpoment. Retrieved from

Aswan, D. M., Lufri, L., & Sumarmin, R. (2018). Influence of problem based learning on Critical Thinking skills and competence class VIII SMPN 1 Gunuang Omeh, 2016/2017. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 335, p. 012128). doi:

Asyari, M., Muhdhar, M. H. I. Al, Susilo, H., & Ibrahim. (2016). Improving critical thinking skills thorugh the intergration of problem based learning and grup investigation. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 5(1), 36–44. Retrieved from

At-Taubany, T. I. B. (2017). Desain pengembangan kurikulum 2013 di madrasah. Depok: Kencana Prenada Media Grup. Retrieved from,+(Depok&source=bl&ots=Qj4Gb90BzS&sig=ACfU3U3_VKxAB-l81EM1mpue84m3Ug6fkw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjAgYHqlq_mAhWlILcAHW1pCgUQ6AEwDXoECAoQA

Aydin, Y. (2014). The effects of problem based approach on student’s conceptual understanding in a university mathematics classroom. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152, 704–707. doi:

Boelens, R., De Wever, B., Rosseel, Y., Verstraete, A. G., & Derese, A. (2015). What are the most important tasks of tutors during the tutorials in hybrid problem-based learning curricula? BMC Medical Education, 15(1), 84. doi:

Çakıroğlu, Ü., & Öztürk, M. (2017). Flipped classroom with problem based activities : Exploring self-regulated learning in a programming language course. Educational Technology & Society, 20(1), 337–349. Retrieved from

Cornelisse, T. M., & Sagasta, J. (2018). The effect of conservation knowledge on attitudes and stated behaviors toward arthropods of urban and suburban elementary school students. Anthrozoös, 31(3), 283–296. doi:

Demirel, M. (2016). Effects of problem-based learning on attitude: A meta-analysis study. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 12(8), 2115–2137. doi:

Duan, W., & Sheng, J. (2018). How can environmental knowledge transfer into pro-environmental behavior among Chinese individuals? Environmental pollution perception matters. Journal of Public Health, 26(3), 289–300. doi:

Dudani, S. N., Lakhmapurkar, J., Gavali, D., & Patel, T. (2017). Heavy metal accumulation in the mangrove ecosystem of south Gujarat coast, India. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 17(4), 755–766. doi:

El-Shaer, A., & Gaber, H. (2014). Impact of problem-based learning on student critical thinking dispositions, knowledge acquisition and retention. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(14), 74–85. doi:

Ergen, B., & Ergen, Z. (2011). How does education affect environmental knowledge: A survey in urban and regional planning education. Online Submission.US-China Education Review B 7 P924-931 2011, 7, 923–931. Retrieved from

Erhabor, N. I., & Don, J. U. (2016). Impact of environmental education on the knowledge and attitude of students towards the environment. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(12), 5367–5375. doi:

Ersoy, E., & Baser, N. e. (2014). The effects of problem-based learning method in higher education on creative thinking. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 3494–3498. doi:

Febriasari, L. K., & Supriatna, N. (2017). Enhance environmental literacy through problem based learning. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 895, p. 012163). doi:

Galvao, T. F., Silva, M. T., Neiva, C. S., Ribeiro, L. M., & Pereira, M. G. (2014). Problem-based learning in pharmaceutical education: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Scientific World Journal, 2014. doi:

Gewurtz, R. E., Coman, L., Dhillon, S., Jung, B., & Solomon, P. (2016). Problem-based learning and theories of teaching and learning in health professional education. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice, 4(1), 59–70. doi:

Ghazali, D., Guericolas, M., Thys, F., Sarasin, F., Arcos González, P., & Casalino, E. (2018). Climate change impacts on disaster and emergency medicine focusing on mitigation disruptive effects: An international perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(7), 1379. doi:

Gholami, M., Moghadam, P. K., Mohammadipoor, F., Tarahi, M. J., Sak, M., Toulabi, T., & Pour, A. H. H. (2016). Comparing the effects of problem-based learning and the traditional lecture method on critical thinking skills and metacognitive awareness in nursing students in a critical care nursing course. Nurse Education Today, 45, 16–21. doi:

Gifford, R., & Sussman, R. (2012). Environmental attitudes. (S. D. Clayton, Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:

Hartika, D., Diana, S., & Wulan, A. R. (2019). Relationship between naturalist intelligence with environmental attitude. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 60017, p. 060017). doi:

Husin, A. (2017). Pengaruh metode pembelajaran dan kecerdasan naturalis terhadap pengetahuan siswa tentang konsep ekosistem (Eksperimen di Sekolah Dasar Negeri 4 Tangerang). Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Lingkungan Dan Pembangunan, 13(2), 53–65. doi:

Ichsan, I. Z., Sigit, D. V., Miarsyah, M., Azrai, E. P., & Heryanti, E. (2019). Students’ pro-environmental behavior and environmental learning outcomes based on green consumerism. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia, 5(1), 109–116. doi:

Jianping, L., Minrong, L., Jinnan, W., Jianjian, L., Hongwen, S., & Maoxing, H. (2014). Global environmental issues and human wellbeing. In L. Jianping, L. Minrong, W. Jinnan, L. Jianjian, S. Hongwen, & H. Maoxing (Eds.), Report on Global Environmental Competitiveness (2013) (pp. 3–21). Berlin: Springer. doi:

Kamaludin, S., Surtikanti, H. K., & Surakusumah, W. (2018). Developing issue-based teaching materials to improve student learning outcomes in Freshwater Biology Course. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 4(2), 161–170. doi:

Kan’an, A., & Osman, K. (2016). The effects of PBL on learning biology in Qatar. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. doi:

Karimi, R. (2011). Interface between problem-based learning and a learner-centered paradigm. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 2, 117. doi:

Koçakoǧlu, M., Türkmen, L., & Solak, K. (2010). Motivational styles in problem-based learning. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 2, pp. 615–619). doi:

Koray, Ö., & Koray, A. (2013). The effectiveness of problem-based learning supported with computer simulations on reasoning ability. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 106, pp. 2746–2755). doi:

Kuvac, M., & Koc, I. (2018). The effect of problem-based learning on the environmental attitudes of preservice science teachers. Educational Studies, 45(1), 1–23. doi:

Kuvac, M., & Koc, I. (2019). The effect of problem-based learning on the metacognitive awareness of pre-service science teachers. Educational Studies, 45(5), 646–666. doi:

Lee, C. S., Jung, S., Lim, B. S., Kim, A. R., Lim, C. H., & Lee, H. (2019). Forest decline under progress in the urban forest of Seoul, Central Korea. In Deforestation Around the World [Working Title]. IntechOpen. doi:

Linton, D. L., Pangle, W. M., Wyatt, K. H., Powell, K. N., & Sherwood, R. E. (2014). Identifying key features of effective active learning: The effects of writing and peer discussion. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 13(3), 469–477. doi:

Machin, A. (2014). Implementasi pendekatan saintifik, penanaman karakter dan konservasi pada pembelajaran materi pertumbuhan. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 3(1), 28–35. doi:

Ningrum, Z. B., Soesilo, T. E. B., & Herdiansyah, H. (2018). Naturalistic intelligence and environmental awareness among graduate students. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 68, p. 02004). doi:

Nursa’ban, E., Masykuri, M., & Yamtinah, S. (2019). Improving student learning outcomes in science subjects through the implementation of PBL-based module. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia, 5(2), 269–276. doi:

Oliveira, L. B. de, Díaz, L. J. R., Carbogim, F. da C., Baldacin, A. R., Rodrigues, & Püschel, V. A. de A. (2016). Effectiveness of teaching strategies on the development of critical thinking in undergraduate nursing students: a meta-analysis Effectiveness of teaching strategies on the development of critical thinking in undergraduate nursing students: a meta-analysis. Rev Esc Enferm USP ·, 50(2), 350–359. doi:

Pagiaslis, A., & Krontalis, A. K. (2014). Green consumption behavior antecedents: Environmental concern, knowledge, and beliefs. Psychology & Marketing, 31(5), 335–348. doi:

Prasetyant, N. M., Sari, D. N., & Sajidan. (2016). Penerapan model pembelajaran problem based learning (PBL) untuk meningkatkan kemampuan proses berpikir kognitif peserta didik kelas XI MIPA-1 SMA Negeri 3 Surakarta tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Jurnal Inkuiri, 5(2), 1–7. Retrieved from

Qutoshi, S. B., & Poudel, T. (2014). Student centered approach to teaching: What does it mean for the stakeholders of a community school in Karachi, Pakistan? Journal of Education and Research, 4(1), 24–38. doi:

Ramdiah, S., Abidinsyah, H., & Mayasari, R. (2018). Problem-based learning: Generates higher-order thinking skills of tenth graders in ecosystem concept. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia, 4(1), 29. doi:

Ray, D. K., West, P. C., Clark, M., Gerber, J. S., Prishchepov, A. V., & Chatterjee, S. (2019). Climate change has likely already affected global food production. PLOS ONE, 14(5), e0217148. doi:

Ray, S., & Ray, I. A. (2011). Impact of population growth on environmental degradation: Case of India. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 2(8), 72–77. Retrieved from

Razmjoo. (2008). On the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency. The Reading Matrix, 8, 155–174. Retrieved from

Roshayanti, F., Wicaksono, A. G. C., & Minarti, I. B. (2019). The profile of students’ analytical skills in environmental issues of coastal area. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 5(1), 33–40. doi:

Rotgans, J. I., & Schmidt, H. G. (2011). Cognitive engagement in the problem-based learning classroom. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 16(4), 465–479. doi:

Roy, M., Shemdoe, R., Hulme, D., Mwageni, N., & Gough, A. (2018). Climate change and declining levels of green structures: Life in informal settlements of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Landscape and Urban Planning, 180, 282–293. doi:

Rubiah, M. (2016). Implementation of problem based learning model in concept learning mushroom as a result of student learning improvement efforts guidelines for teachers. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(22), 26–30. Retrieved from

Schmitz, G. L., & Rocha, J. B. T. (2018). Environmental education program as a tool to improve children’s environmental attitudes and knowledge. Education, 8(2), 15–20. doi:

Servant-Miklos, V. F. C. (2019). Problem solving skills versus knowledge acquisition: The historical dispute that split problem-based learning into two camps. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 24(3), 619–635. doi:

Shishigu, A., Hailu, A., & Anibo, Z. (2018). Problem-based learning and conceptual understanding of college female students in physics. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(1), 145–154. doi:

Shultz, G. V., & Li, Y. (2016). Student development of information literacy skills during problem-based organic chemistry laboratory experiments. Journal of Chemical Education, 93(3), 413–422. doi:

Suwono, H., Pratiwi, H. E., Susanto, H., & Susilo, H. (2017). Enhancement of students’ biological literacy and critical thinking of biology through socio-biological case-based learning. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 6(2), 213–222. doi:

Tanu, D., & Parker, L. (2018). Fun, ‘family’, and friends. Indonesia and the Malay World, 46(136), 303–324. doi:

Thakur, P., & Dutt, S. (2017). Problem based learning in biology: Its effect on achievement motivation of students of 9 th standard. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Education and Research, 2(2), 99–104. Retrieved from

Tosun, C., & Taskesenligil, Y. (2013). The effect of problem-based learning on undergraduate students’ learning about solutions and their physical properties and scientific processing skills. Chem. Educ. Res. Pract., 14(1), 36–50. doi:

Ulger, K. (2018). The effect of problem-based learning on the creative thinking and critical thinking disposition of students in visual arts education. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 12(1). doi:

Veli, B. (2014). The effects of a problem based learning approach on students attitude levels: A meta-analysis. Educational Research and Reviews, 9(9), 272–276. doi:

Wirdianti, N., Komala, R., & Miarsyah, M. (2019). Naturalist intelligence and personality: An understanding students’ responsible enviromental behavior. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia, 5(2), 229–236. doi:

Yaqinuddin, A. (2013). Problem-based learning as an instructional method. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan, 23(5), 83–85. Retrieved from

Yasinta, K. A., & Karyanto, P. (2016). Pengembangan subject specific pedagogy berbasis PBL untuk penguatan sikap peduli lingkungan siswa kelas X IPA SMA Negeri Karanganyar. Proceeding Biology Education Conference, 13(1), 272–279. Retrieved from

Yew, E. H. J., & Goh, K. (2016). Problem-based learning: An overview of its process and impact on learning. Health Professions Education, 2(2), 75–79. doi:

Zheng, Q. J., Xu, A. X., Kong, D. Y., Deng, H. P., & Lin, Q. Q. (2018). Correlation between the environmental knowledge, environmental attitude, and behavioral intention of tourists for ecotourism in China. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 16(1), 51–62. doi:

Zwick, M. (2018). The design, implementation, and assessment of an undergraduate neurobiology course using a project-based approach. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education : JUNE : A Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience, 16(2), A131–A142. Retrieved from

DOI: | Abstract views : 257 | PDF views : 0 |


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Suhirman & Yusuf

License URL:

View JPBI Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.