Empowering critical thinking skills by implementing scientific approach-based models among various students’ ethnics


  • Didimus Tanah Boleng Scopus ID: 57194721482; Departement of Biology Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Mulawarman University, Jl. Muara Pahu, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Samarinda 75119 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4632-3994
  • Elsje Theodora Maasawet Departement of Biology Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Mulawarman University, Jl. Muara Pahu, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Samarinda 75119 http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8234-643X
  • Krishna Purnawan Candra Departement of Agricultural Poduct Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Mulawarman University and Doctoral Study Program of Environmental Science, Postgraduate Program, Mulawarman University, Jl. Sambaliung, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Samarinda 75119 http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1358-1329




guided inquiry, problem-based learning, scientific approach-based models, students’ ethnic


In empowering students’ 21st century skills, the implementation of scientific approach-based models (SAbM) is recommended. This quasi-experimental research was conducted in senior high school in which the students were comprised of different ethnics. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of SAbM on empowering students' critical thinking skills (CTS). The SAbM implemented were Problem-Based Learning (PBL), Guided Inquiry (GI), and PBL+GI combination. Furthermore, the students’ ethnics included were Javanese, Bugis, Kutai, Banjar, and Toraja. The purposive sampling was used to determine the classes employed (i.e. 11th classes from two senior high schools in Samarinda). The instrument used to collect CTS data was questions test. The data were analyzed using two-way ANCOVA. The results showed that there was no significant interaction between ethnic and learning models on the students' CTS (p = 0.219), as also shown by the main effect of ethnic types (p = 0.583). In contrast, there was a significant effect of SAbM on students’ CTS (p = 0.0005) Through this study, SAbM need to be implemented continuously as it can optimize the empowerment of students’ 21st Century skills.

Author Biographies

Didimus Tanah Boleng, Scopus ID: 57194721482; Departement of Biology Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Mulawarman University, Jl. Muara Pahu, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Samarinda 75119

 Scopus ID: 57194721482SINTA ID : 6014321

Elsje Theodora Maasawet, Departement of Biology Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Mulawarman University, Jl. Muara Pahu, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Samarinda 75119

Krishna Purnawan Candra, Departement of Agricultural Poduct Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Mulawarman University and Doctoral Study Program of Environmental Science, Postgraduate Program, Mulawarman University, Jl. Sambaliung, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Samarinda 75119


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