Using critical analysis to develop metacognitive ability and critical thinking skills in biology


  • Marheny Lukitasari Department of Biology Education, Universitas PGRI Madiun, Jl. Setia Budi No. 85 Madiun, East Java 63118
  • Rusdi Hasan Department of Biology Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Bengkulu, Kampus I Jl. Bali, Teluk Segara, Bengkulu 38119
  • Wasilatul Murtafiah Department of Mathematics Education, Universitas PGRI Madiun, Jl. Setia Budi No. 85 Madiun, East Java 63118



Critical analysis, critical thinking skill, metacognitive ability


Possessing and developing metacognitive abilities are an essential part of the learning process. This study is a class action research on the use of critical analysis to identify its influence on students’ metacognitive abilities and critical thinking skills as well as to discover the relationship between metacognitive abilities and critical thinking skills. The sample of this study is 76 students from 217 students taking cell biology and non-vascular plants subject during the fall semester. It is a descriptive quantitative study with critical analysis assignments. Critical analysis rubric is used to collect the data of students’ critical analysis and the essay test to measure students’ critical thinking and metacognitive ability. The data of metacognitive ability and critical thinking were analyzed using regression test. The result showed there was a positive influence of the use of critical analysis to the student metacognitive abilities and critical thinking skills. The results of a simple correlation analysis of metacognitive abilities and critical thinking skills show the means value (r) of 0.904, which means that there is a strong positive relationship between the two components. The higher the student’ metacognitive skills, the higher their critical thinking skill will be.


Alper, A., Karakaya, F. A., & Yilmaz, K. (2015). Relations between self-leadership and critical thinking skills. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 29–41. doi:

Arifin, Z. (2012). Evaluasi pembelajaran. Bandung: Rosda Karya. Retrieved from http://winarno.staff.

Averkieva, L., Chayka, Y., & Glushkov, S. (2015). Web quest as a tool for increasing students’ motivation and critical thinking development. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 206, 137–140. doi:

Bhagat, A., Vyas, R., & Singh, T. (2015). Students awareness of learning styles and their perceptions to a mixed method approach for learning. International Journal of Applied & Basic Medical Research, 5(Suppl 1), S58-65. doi:

Bernard, R. M., Zhang, D., Abrami, P. C., Sicoly, F., Borokhovski, E., & Surkes, M. A. (2008). Exploring the structure of the Watson-Glaser critical thinking appraisal: one scale or many subscales? Thinking Skills and Creativity, 3, 15–22. doi:

Busmin, G. (2010). Analisis wacana kritis; analisis bahasa berdasarkan fungsi sosial. Retrieved from

Cojocariu, V. M., & Butnaru, C. E. (2014). Asking question-critical thinking tools. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 128, 22–28. doi:

Corebima, A. D. (2009). Metacognitive skill measurement integrated in achievement test. In Third International Conference on Science and Mathematics Education(CoSMEd). Penang, Malaysia. Retrieved from

Cox, M. T. (2005). Metacognition in computation: a selected research review. Artificial Intelegence, 169, 104–141. doi:

Ellis, A. K., Denton, D. W., & Bond, J. B. (2014). An analysis of research on metacognitive teaching strategies. In Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 4015–4024. doi: 2014.01.883

Gunawan, M., A. (2013). Statistik untuk penelitian pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Parama Publishing. Retrieved from

Gurbin, T. (2015). Metacognition and technology adoption: exploring influences. In Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 191, 1576–1582. doi:

Gurubatham, M. R. (2013). Blended action learning involving metacognition and active discussion on internationally. In Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 93, 2157–2172. doi: /j.sbspro.2013.10.182

Hanten, G., Dennis, M., Zhang, L., Barnes, M., Roberson, G., Archibald, J., … Levin, H. S. (2004). Childhood head injury and metacognitive processes in language and memory. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25(1–2), 85–105. doi:

Hattie, J. A. C., & Donoghue, G. M. (2016). Learning strategies: A synthesis and conceptual model. Npj Science of Learning, 16013(2016), 1–13. doi:

Helyer, R. (2015). Learning through reflection: The critical role of reflection in work-based learning (WBL). Journal of Work-Applied Management, 7(1), 15–27. doi:

Hrbakova, K., Hladik, J., & Vavrova, S. (2012). The relationship between locus of control, metacognition, and academic succes. In Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 69, 1805–1811. doi: 1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.130

Karami, M., Pakmehr, H., & Aghili, A. (2012). Another view to importance of teaching methods in curriculum: collaborative learning and students’ critical thinking disposition. In Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 46, 3266–3270. doi:

Karsli, T. A. (2015). Meta-cognition and locus of control in university students in context of viewpoint to rape. In Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 205(May), 48–52. doi: 2015.09.010

Kirmizi, F. S., Saygi, C., & Yurdakal, I. H. (2015). Determine the relationship between the disposition of critical thinking and the perception about problem solving skills. In Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 191, 657–661. doi:

Laisema, S., & Wannapiroon, P. (2014). Design of collaborative learning with creative problem-solving process learning activities in a ubiquitous learning environment to develop creative thinking skills. In Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 3921–3926. doi: 01.867

Le, H., Janssen, J., & Wubbels, T. (2018). Collaborative learning practices: teacher and student perceived obstacles to effective student collaboration. Cambridge Journal of Education. doi:

Lukitasari, M., Susilo, H., & Corebima, A. D. (2014). Lesson study in improving the role of e-portfolio on the metacognitive skill and concept comprehension: A study on Cell Biology subject in IKIP PGRI Madiun, Indonesia. American Journal of Educational Research, 2(10), 919–924. doi: education-2-10-11

Magno, C. (2010). The role of metacognitive skills in developing critical thinking. Metacognition Learning, 5, 137–156. doi:

Rahimi, E., & Masoud, S. (2015). Critical discourse analysis and its implication in english language teaching: a case study of political text. Journal of Linguistics and Literature, 5(3), 504–511. doi: 17507/tpls.0503.08

Schraw, G., Moshman, D., Schraw, G., & Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive theories. Educational Psychology Review, 7(4), 351–371. Retrieved from article=1040&context=edpsychpapers

Scottish Qualifications Authority. (2017). Guide to assessment. Glasgow: Scottish Qualifications Authority The. Retrieved from

Spada, M. M., & Roarty, A. (2015). The relative contribution of metacognitions and attentional control to the severity of gambling in problem gamblers. Addictive Behaviours Reports, 1, 7–11. doi:

Sugiyono. (2008). Metode Penelitian pendidikan: (pendekatan kuantitatif, kualitatif, dan R&D). Bandung: Alfabeta. Retrieved from oi=scholarr

Sung, Y. T., Chang, K. E., & Liu, T. C. (2016). The effects of integrating mobile devices with teaching and learning on students’ learning performance: A meta-analysis and research synthesis. Computers and Education, 94, 252–275. doi:

Thaiposri, P., & Wannapiroon, P. (2015). Enhancing students’ critical thinking skills through teaching and learning by inquiry-based learning activities using social network and cloud computing. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 2137–2144. doi:

Tofade, T., Elsner, J., & Haines, S. T. (2013). Best practice strategies for effective use of questions as a teaching tool. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(7), 1–9. doi:

Veenman, M. V. J., Wilhelm, P., & Beishuizen, J. J. (2004). The relation between intellectual and metacognitive skills from a developmental perspective. Learning and Instruction, 14(1), 89–109. doi:

Wannapiron, P. (2014). Development of research-based blended learning model to enhance graduate students’ research competency and critical thinking skills. In Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 136, 486–490. doi:

Weil, L. G., Fleming, S. M., Dumontheil, I., Kilford, E. J., Weil, R. S., Rees, G., … Blakemore, S. J. (2013). The development of metacognitive ability in adolescence. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(1), 264–271. Doi:

Whitebread, D., Coltman, P., Pasternak, D. P., Sangster, C., Grau, V., Bingham, S., … Demetriou, D. (2009). The development of two observational tools for assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning in young children. Metacognition & Learning, 4(1), 63–85. doi:

Wilson, J. S. (2017). Promoting Critical Thinking In General Biology Courses: The Case Of The White Widow Spider. Journal on Empowering Teaching Excellence Journal on Empowering Teaching Excellence Journal on Empowering Teaching Excellence, 1(2). Retrieved from

Yaliz, D. S. (2014). The metacognition levels of students: A research school of physical education and sports at Anadolu University. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 9, S398–S408. doi: 14198/jhse.2014.9.Proc1.25

Zeichner, K. M. (2008). A critical analysis of reflection as a goal for teacher education. Educação & Sociedade, 29, 535–554. doi:






21st Century Skills