RQA integrated with ADI: Empowering biology students’ ability in posing higher-order thinking skills questions


  • Astuti Muh Amin Biology Education Study Program, Postgraduate Program, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang No. 5, Sumbersari, Lowokwaru, Malang City, East Java 65145 http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7269-0299
  • Duran Corebima Aloysius Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Cakrawala No. 5, Sumbersari, Lowokwaru, Malang City, East Java 65145
  • Siti Zubaidah Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Cakrawala No. 5, Sumbersari, Lowokwaru, Malang City, East Java 65145
  • Susriyati Mahanal Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Cakrawala No. 5, Sumbersari, Lowokwaru, Malang City, East Java 65145




ADI, Higher-Order Thinking Skills, RQA


Questions serve as an element that can be used to access and stimulate students’ thinking ability. This research aimed at analyzing the students’ ability to pose Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) questions during the learning process. This research was a survey research using a descriptive quantitative approach. The samples used in the research were biology education students of UIN Alauddin Makassar and Universitas Muslim Maros, South Sulawesi with the total of 92 students. The instrument used in this research was an observation sheet of questioning skills for the biology pre-service teachers. The results of this research showed that the implementations of RQA, ADI, and RQA integrated with ADI learning strategies were dominated with HOTS questions, while the learning using the conventional learning strategy was dominated with the Lower-Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) questions. The percentages of the HOTS questions in the learning using RQA, ADI, RQA integrated with ADI, and the conventional learning strategy were 60.53%, 55.71%, 64.91%, and 19.35% respectively.  This finding indicates that the RQA integrated with ADI strategy contributes the significant impact in stimulating students’ ability in posing HOTS questions in the classroom.

Author Biography

Astuti Muh Amin, Biology Education Study Program, Postgraduate Program, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang No. 5, Sumbersari, Lowokwaru, Malang City, East Java 65145

Biology Education


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